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[Forthcoming] Chondrichthyans of the Western Indian Ocean: Biodiversity, Fisheries and Trade, Management and Conservation
Les pratiques de chasse des communautés riveraines du Parc Naturel Makira
Malgré les recherches menées dans le passé, les connaissances sur les pratiques actuelles de chasse des communautés riveraines de Makira étaient limitées, et une étude sur les pratiques de chasse a donc été menée pour dresser le profil des chasseurs, évaluer leur niveau de dépendance sur la chasse, et évaluer la durabilité des pratiques actuelles de chasse. Entre octobre et décembre 2019, du personnel technique de WCS et des enquêteurs formés par WCS ont collecté des données sur les pratiques de chasse dans 8 Zones de Transfert de Gestion (TDG) et 2 Zones d’Occupation Contrôlée (ZOC) réparties dans les secteurs 1 et 3 du Parc Naturel Makira, où le projet SWM est mis en oeuvre. Des discussions de groupes ont été menées dans les villages principaux des 10 sites SWM, et des enquêtes individuelles dans ces mêmes 10 villages ainsi que dans 9 villages secondaires des sites. Au total, les enquêteurs ont mené 285 enquêtes individuelles auprès de chasseurs, 10 discussions de groupes (1 par site) avec des chasseurs, et 10 discussions de groupes (1 par site) avec des femmes de chasseurs pour évaluer leur rôle dans les décisions liées aux pratiques de chasse.
Surveys acrossmultiple seasons or years are necessary to evaluate the effects of dynamic processes on long-term persistence ofwildlife populations, such as effects of exotic species on native species populations. Unfortunately, multi-year surveys are rare, particularly for rainforest carnivore populations, and managers often rely on singleseason/ year, ‘snapshot’ surveys that produce static estimates of population parameters. Here we provide results using single-species, multi-year occupancy modeling from a six-year survey (2008–2013) of a rainforest carnivore community at a 15 km2 area study site within the newly established Makira Natural Park, Madagascar. We demonstrate a precipitous decline in the native carnivore community with four of the six native carnivores (falanouc Eupleres goudotii, ring-tailed vontsira Galidia elegans, broad-striped vontsira Galidictis fasciata, and brown-tailed vontsira Salanoia concolor) decreasing by at least 60% over this six-year period. In addition, we observed two exotic carnivores (small Indian civet Viverricula indica and feral cat Felis species) colonize this study site with Felis species increasing in occupancy from 0 to 0.68 by the final year. Further,we demonstrate how variables associated with human encroachment (i.e. distance to forest edge and nearest village) are most important for explaining these trends in native carnivore extirpation and exotic carnivore colonization. These findings provide additional evidence on the threat posed to native carnivore populations by the expansion of exotic carnivores worldwide. We highlight the striking increase in extirpation, and the factors influencing such changes, for native carnivores. In this manuscript, we point to the limited number of multi-year surveys to evaluate dynamic processes on long-term persistence of native wildlife populations, as well as the lack of exotic carnivore control programs in threatened ecosystems in many developing nations as factors limiting our ability to effectively conserve biodiversity across the globe.
Low elevation silky sifakas (Propithecus candidus) in the Makira Conservation Site at Andaparaty-Rabeson. Ranging, demography, and possible sympatry with red ruffed lemurs (Varecia rubra).
A two-month study of Silky sifaka (Propithecus candidus) ranging and demography within the Makira conservation site was made at the Andaparaty-Rabeson research site. Silky sifakas and their traces were surveyed using a flagged trail system created along existing footpaths and travel routes used by P. candidus. GPS coordinates and altitude were taken at each encounter with animals or their traces. Physical descriptions were recorded for all individuals, and photos taken whenever possible. Whenever anthropogenic habitat disturbance was surveyed, the intensity of the disturbance was classified using Lehman et al.’s (2006) 4-point scale. Home range size was determined using the Ranges VI software package. Surveys with adult local residents were made at two villages in order to learn more about the local socio-economic context.
A rhapsody of colours from Madagascar. discovery of a remarkable new snake of the genus Liophidium and its phylogenetic relationships
We describe an extraordinarily bright-coloured new species of lamprophiid snake from Makira reserve in the North East of Madagascar, assigned to the subfamily Pseudoxyrhophiinae. Liophidium pattoni sp. n. is characterised by four pink-red longitudinal lines on a black dorsum, a yellow venter and a pink-red ventral side of tail. It had previously been photographed at Masoala National Park in northeastern Madagascar and possibly elsewhere, but its generic assignment was uncertain because no specimens were available for study. Molecular phylogenetic analyses on the basis of DNA sequences of the cytochrome b, 6S rRNA and nuclear c-mos genes are concordant in placing the new species sister to Liophidium rhodogaster, and these two species sister to a clade containing the remaining Liophidium species included. Besides its unique colour and a substantial genetic differentiation, L. pattoni differs from almost all Liophidium by meristic characters, the only exception being L. torquatum that exhibits overlaps in scale counts with the new species but differs by its colouration, with lack of pink-red colour on the back, a dark band in the neck, and transversal lines of spots on the venter. Next to the yellow-black Stenophis citrinus, this is the second pseudoxyrhophiine from Madagascar with such bright and potentially aposematic colour, although these two species both are not aggressive and, as far as is known, not dangerously toxic.
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